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Венесуэла 1830- - Боливарианская Республика Венесуэла - государство на севере Южной Америки, президентская республика, испаноязычная, площадь 916445 кв км, население 30761000 (2015), столица Каракас UTC -4, президент МАДУРО Николас 2013- родился 1962-11-23, телефонный код +58, ISO код VE, Интернет-домен .ve Venezuela 1830-- Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela - the state in the north of South America, the presidential republic, Hispanic, area 916,445 sq. Km, population 30761000 (2015), capital of Caracas UTC -4, president MADURO Nicolas 2013- born 1962-11-23, phone code +58, ISO code VE, Internet domain .ve

СозданиеCreationУчредители, первое лицоFounders, supreme authorityПравительствоGovernmentПарламентParliamentОппозиция, обществнностьOpposition, public
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Место в мировой системеPlace in world system
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Культура, специфика, переменыCulture, specific, conversions
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Демография, этносы, языки, конфессииDemography, ethnoses, languages, confessionsГеография, природа, экологияGeography, nature, ecology
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Медиа, общественное мнениеMedia, social opinionСпорт, хобби, обычаиSport, hobby, customs
 Venezuela Background: Venezuela was one of three countries that emerged from the collapse of Gran Colombia in 1830 (the others being Colombia and Ecuador). For most of the first half of the 20th century, Venezuela was ruled by generally benevolent military strongmen, who promoted the oil industry and allowed for some social reforms. Democratically elected governments have held sway since 1959. Current concerns include: an embattled president who is losing his once solid support among Venezuelans, a divided military, drug-related conflicts along the Colombian border, increasing internal drug consumption, overdependence on the petroleum industry with its price fluctuations, and irresponsible mining operations that are endangering the rain forest and indigenous peoples. Geography Venezuela Location: Northern South America, bordering the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, between Colombia and Guyana Geographic coordinates: 8 00 N, 66 00 W Map references: South America Area: total: 912,050 sq km land: 882,050 sq km water: 30,000 sq km Area - comparative: slightly more than twice the size of California Land boundaries: total: 4,993 km border countries: Brazil 2,200 km, Colombia 2,050 km, Guyana 743 km Coastline: 2,800 km Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 15 NM territorial sea: 12 NM continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation exclusive economic zone: 200 NM Climate: tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands Terrain: Andes Mountains and Maracaibo Lowlands in northwest; central plains (llanos); Guiana Highlands in southeast Elevation extremes: lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m highest point: Pico Bolivar (La Columna) 5,007 m Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, gold, bauxite, other minerals, hydropower, diamonds Land use: arable land: 2.99% permanent crops: 0.96% other: 96.05% (1998 est.) Irrigated land: 540 sq km (1998 est.) Natural hazards: subject to floods, rockslides, mudslides; periodic droughts Environment - current issues: sewage pollution of Lago de Valencia; oil and urban pollution of Lago de Maracaibo; deforestation; soil degradation; urban and industrial pollution, especially along the Caribbean coast; threat to the rainforest ecosystem from irresponsible mining operations Environment - international agreements: party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Marine Dumping Geography - note: on major sea and air routes linking North and South America; Angel Falls in the Guiana Highlands is the world's highest waterfall People Venezuela Population: 24,654,694 (July 2003 est.) Age structure: 0-14 years: 31% (male 3,944,749; female 3,700,799) 15-64 years: 64.1% (male 7,931,194; female 7,864,697) 65 years and over: 4.9% (male 552,291; female 660,964) (2003 est.) Median age: total: 24.8 years male: 24.3 years female: 25.4 years (2002) Population growth rate: 1.48% (2003 est.) Birth rate: 19.78 births/1,000 population (2003 est.) Death rate: 4.9 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.) Net migration rate: -0.07 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.) Sex ratio: at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2003 est.) Infant mortality rate: total: 23.79 deaths/1,000 live births female: 20.28 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 27.05 deaths/1,000 live births Life expectancy at birth: total population: 73.81 years male: 70.78 years female: 77.07 years (2003 est.) Total fertility rate: 2.36 children born/woman (2003 est.) HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.5% - note: no country specific models provided (2001 est.) HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 62,000 (1999 est.) HIV/AIDS - deaths: 2,000 (2001 est.) Nationality: noun: Venezuelan(s) adjective: Venezuelan Ethnic groups: Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, Arab, German, African, indigenous people Religions: nominally Roman Catholic 96%, Protestant 2%, other 2% Languages: Spanish (official), numerous indigenous dialects Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 93.4% male: 93.8% female: 93.1% (2003 est.) Government Venezuela Country name: conventional long form: Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela conventional short form: Venezuela local short form: Venezuela local long form: Republica Bolivariana de Venezuela Government type: federal republic Capital: Caracas Administrative divisions: 23 states (estados, singular - estado), 1 federal district* (distrito federal), and 1 federal dependency** (dependencia federal); Amazonas, Anzoategui, Apure, Aragua, Barinas, Bolivar, Carabobo, Cojedes, Delta Amacuro, Dependencias Federales**, Distrito Federal*, Falcon, Guarico, Lara, Merida, Miranda, Monagas, Nueva Esparta, Portuguesa, Sucre, Tachira, Trujillo, Vargas, Yaracuy, Zulia note: the federal dependency consists of 11 federally controlled island groups with a total of 72 individual islands Independence: 5 July 1811 (from Spain) National holiday: Independence Day, 5 July (1811) Constitution: 30 December 1999 Legal system: based on organic laws as of July 1999; open, adversarial court system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal Executive branch: chief of state: President Hugo CHAVEZ Frias (since 3 February 1999); Vice President Jose Vicente RANGEL (since 28 April 2002); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government head of government: President Hugo CHAVEZ Frias (since 3 February 1999); Vice President Jose Vicente RANGEL (since 28 April 2002); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president election results: Hugo CHAVEZ Frias reelected president; percent of vote - 60% elections: president elected by popular vote for a six-year term; election last held 30 July 2000 (next to be held NA 2006) Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Asamblea Nacional (165 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms; three seats reserved for the indigenous peoples of Venezuela) election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - pro-government 108 (MVR 92, MAS 6, indigenous 3, other 7), opposition 57 (AD 33, COPEI 6, Justice First 5, other 13) elections: last held 30 July 2000 (next to be held NA 2005) Judicial branch: Supreme Tribunal of Justice or Tribuna Suprema de Justicia (magistrates are elected by the National Assembly for a single 12-year term) Political parties and leaders: Democratic Action or AD [Claudio FERMIN]; Fifth Republic Movement or MVR [Garcia PONCE]; Homeland for All or PPT [Jose ALBORNIZ]; Justice First [Julio BORGES]; Movement Toward Socialism or MAS [Hector MUJICA]; National Convergence or Convergencia [Juan Jose CALDERA]; Radical Cause or La Causa R [Antonio HERRERA]; Social Christian Party or COPEI [Oswaldo ALVAREZ Paz]; Venezuela Project or PV [Henrique SALAS Romer] Political pressure groups and leaders: FEDECAMARAS, a conservative business group; VECINOS groups; Venezuelan Confederation of Workers or CTV (labor organization dominated by the Democratic Action) International organization participation: CAN, Caricom (observer), CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-3, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, OPEC, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNU, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Bernardo ALVAREZ chancery: 1099 30th Street NW, Washington, DC 20007 consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Houston, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico) FAX: [1] (202) 342-6820 telephone: [1] (202) 342-2214 Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Charles S. SHAPIRO embassy: Calle F con Calle Suapure, Urbanizacion Colinas de Valle Arriba, Caracas 1080 mailing address: P. O. Box 62291, Caracas 1060-A; APO AA 34037 telephone: [58] (212) 975-9234, 975-6411 FAX: [58] (212) 975-8991 Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of yellow (top), blue, and red with the coat of arms on the hoist side of the yellow band and an arc of seven white five-pointed stars centered in the blue band Economy Venezuela Economy - overview: Venezuela continues to be highly dependent on the petroleum sector, which accounts for roughly one-third of GDP, around 80% of export earnings, and more than half of government operating revenues. Despite higher oil prices at the end of 2002 and into 2003, domestic political instability, culminating in a two-month national oil strike from December 2002 to February 2003, temporarily halted economic activity. The economy is likely to remain in a recession in 2003, after sinking an estimated 8.9 percent in 2002. GDP: purchasing power parity - $131.7 billion (2002 est.) GDP - real growth rate: -8.9% (2002 est.) GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $5,400 (2002 est.) GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 5% industry: 50% services: 45% (2001) Population below poverty line: 47% (1998 est.) Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 0.8% highest 10%: 36.5% (1998) Distribution of family income - Gini index: 49.5 (1998) Inflation rate (consumer prices): 31.2% (2002 est.) Labor force: 9.9 million (1999) Labor force - by occupation: services 64%, industry 23%, agriculture 13% (1997 est.) Unemployment rate: 17% (2002 est.) Budget: revenues: $21.5 billion expenditures: $27 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.) Industries: petroleum, iron ore mining, construction materials, food processing, textiles, steel, aluminum, motor vehicle assembly Industrial production growth rate: -5.4% (2002 est.) Electricity - production: 87.6 billion kWh (2001) Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 31.7% hydro: 68.3% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0% Electricity - consumption: 81.47 billion kWh (2001) Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2001) Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2001) Oil - production: 3.08 million bbl/day (2001 est.) Oil - consumption: 505,000 bbl/day (2001 est.) Oil - exports: NA (2001) Oil - imports: NA (2001) Oil - proved reserves: 63.95 billion bbl (37257) Natural gas - production: 31.71 billion cu m (2001 est.) Natural gas - consumption: 31.71 billion cu m (2001 est.) Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2001 est.) Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2001 est.) Natural gas - proved reserves: 4.202 trillion cu m (37257) Agriculture - products: corn, sorghum, sugarcane, rice, bananas, vegetables, coffee; beef, pork, milk, eggs; fish Exports: $28.6 billion f.o.b. (2001) Exports - commodities: petroleum, bauxite and aluminum, steel, chemicals, agricultural products, basic manufactures Exports - partners: US 53.4%, Netherlands Antilles 17.3%, Canada 2.9% (2002) Imports: $18.8 billion f.o.b. (2001) Imports - commodities: raw materials, machinery and equipment, transport equipment, construction materials Imports - partners: US 27.5%, Colombia 6.9%, Brazil 5.7%, Mexico 4.4% (2002) Debt - external: $38.2 billion (2000) Economic aid - recipient: $74 million (2000) Currency: bolivar (VEB) Currency code: VEB Exchange rates: bolivares per US dollar - 1,160.44 (2002), 723.67 (2001), 679.96 (2000), 605.72 (1999), 547.56 (1998) Fiscal year: calendar year Communications Venezuela Telephones - main lines in use: 2.6 million (however, 3,500,000 have been installed) (1998) Telephones - mobile cellular: 2 million (1998) Telephone system: general assessment: modern and expanding domestic: domestic satellite system with 3 earth stations; recent substantial improvement in telephone service in rural areas; substantial increase in digitalization of exchanges and trunk lines; installation of a national interurban fiber-optic network capable of digital multimedia services international: 3 submarine coaxial cables; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 PanAmSat; participating with Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia in the construction of an international fiber-optic network Radio broadcast stations: AM 201, FM NA (20 in Caracas), shortwave 11 (1998) Radios: 10.75 million (1997) Television broadcast stations: 66 (plus 45 repeaters) (1997) Televisions: 4.1 million (1997) Internet country code: .ve Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 16 (2000) Internet users: 1.3 million (2002) Transportation Venezuela Railways: total: 682 km standard gauge: 682 km 1.435-m gauge (2002) Highways: total: 96,155 km paved: 32,308 km unpaved: 63,847 km (1999 est.) Waterways: 7,100 km note: Rio Orinoco and Lago de Maracaibo accept oceangoing vessels Pipelines: extra heavy crude 992 km; gas 5,262 km; oil 7,484 km; refined products 1,681 km; unknown (oil/water) 141 km (2003) Ports and harbors: Amuay, Bajo Grande, El Tablazo, La Guaira, La Salina, Maracaibo, Matanzas, Palua, Puerto Cabello, Puerto la Cruz, Puerto Ordaz, Puerto Sucre, Punta Cardon Merchant marine: total: 47 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 714,073 GRT/1,256,667 DWT note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Denmark 1, Greece 1, Italy 1, UK 1, US 2 (2002 est.) ships by type: bulk 6, cargo 8, chemical tanker 1, container 1, liquefied gas 4, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 15, roll on/roll off 10, short-sea passenger 1 Airports: 373 (2002) Airports - with paved runways: total: 127 over 3,047 m: 5 2,438 to 3,047 m: 11 914 to 1,523 m: 61 under 914 m: 18 (2002) 1,524 to 2,437 m: 32 Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 246 1,524 to 2,437 m: 10 914 to 1,523 m: 97 under 914 m: 139 (2002) Heliports: 1 (2002) Military Venezuela Military branches: National Armed Forces (Fuerzas Armadas Nacionales or FAN) includes Ground Forces or Army (Fuerzas Terrestres or Ejercito), Naval Forces (Fuerzas Navales or Armada - including marines and Coast Guard), Air Force (Fuerzas Aereas or Aviacion), Armed Forces of Cooperation or National Guard (Fuerzas Armadas de Cooperacion or Guardia Nacional) Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age (2003 est.) Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 6,767,862 (2003 est.) Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 4,870,751 (2003 est.) Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 249,319 (2003 est.) Military expenditures - dollar figure: $934 million (FY99) Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 0.9% (FY99) Transnational Issues Venezuela Disputes - international: claims all of Guyana west of the Essequibo River; maritime boundary dispute with Colombia in the Gulf of Venezuela and the Caribbean Sea; US, France and the Netherlands recognize Venezuela's claim to give full effect to Aves Island, which creates a Venezuelan EEZ/continental shelf extending over a large portion of the Caribbean Sea; Dominica, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines protest the claim and other states' recognition of it Illicit drugs: small-scale illicit producer of opium and coca for the processing of opiates and coca derivatives; however, large quantities of cocaine, heroin, and marijuana transit the country from Colombia bound for US and Europe; significant narcotics-related money-laundering activity, especially along the border with Colombia and on Margarita Island; active eradication program primarily targeting opium; increasing signs of drug-related activities by Colombian insurgents on border This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003
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