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США - Соединенные Штаты Америки 1776- республика федеративная президентская, геозона Америка Северная, площадь 9519431, население 325850000 (2017), столица Вашингтон UTC -5 (-4 летом) телефонный код +1 202; президент ТРАМП Дональд 2017- родился 1946-06-14; ISO код US, телефонный код +1, часовые пояса -5... -10, Интренет-домены .us .mil .gov USA - United States of America 1776- republic federated presidential, geozone America North, area 9519431, population 325850000 (2017), capital Washington UTC -5 (-4 in summer) phone code +1 202; President of TRAMP Donald 2017- born 1946-06-14; ISO code US, phone code +1, time zones -5 ... -10, Intrenet-domains .us .mil .gov

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 United States Background: Britain's American colonies broke with the mother country in 1776 and were recognized as the new nation of the United States of America following the Treaty of Paris in 1783. During the 19th and 20th centuries, 37 new states were added to the original 13 as the nation expanded across the North American continent and acquired a number of overseas possessions. The two most traumatic experiences in the nation's history were the Civil War (1861-65) and the Great Depression of the 1930s. Buoyed by victories in World Wars I and II and the end of the Cold War in 1991, the US remains the world's most powerful nation-state. The economy is marked by steady growth, low unemployment and inflation, and rapid advances in technology. Geography United States Location: North America, bordering both the North Atlantic Ocean and the North Pacific Ocean, between Canada and Mexico Geographic coordinates: 38 00 N, 97 00 W Map references: North America Area: total: 9,629,091 sq km land: 9,158,960 sq km water: 470,131 sq km note: includes only the 50 states and District of Columbia Area - comparative: about half the size of Russia; about three-tenths the size of Africa; about half the size of South America (or slightly larger than Brazil); slightly larger than China; about two and a half times the size of Western Europe Land boundaries: total: 12,034 km border countries: Canada 8,893 km (including 2,477 km with Alaska), Mexico 3,141 km note: US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba is leased by the US and thus remains part of Cuba; the base boundary is 29 km Coastline: 19,924 km Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 NM continental shelf: not specified exclusive economic zone: 200 NM territorial sea: 12 NM Climate: mostly temperate, but tropical in Hawaii and Florida, arctic in Alaska, semiarid in the great plains west of the Mississippi River, and arid in the Great Basin of the southwest; low winter temperatures in the northwest are ameliorated occasionally in January and February by warm chinook winds from the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains Terrain: vast central plain, mountains in west, hills and low mountains in east; rugged mountains and broad river valleys in Alaska; rugged, volcanic topography in Hawaii Elevation extremes: lowest point: Death Valley -86 m highest point: Mount McKinley 6,194 m Natural resources: coal, copper, lead, molybdenum, phosphates, uranium, bauxite, gold, iron, mercury, nickel, potash, silver, tungsten, zinc, petroleum, natural gas, timber Land use: arable land: 19.32% other: 80.46% (1998 est.) permanent crops: 0.22% Irrigated land: 214,000 sq km (1998 est.) Natural hazards: tsunamis, volcanoes, and earthquake activity around Pacific Basin; hurricanes along the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts; tornadoes in the midwest and southeast; mud slides in California; forest fires in the west; flooding; permafrost in northern Alaska, a major impediment to development Environment - current issues: air pollution resulting in acid rain in both the US and Canada; the US is the largest single emitter of carbon dioxide from the burning of fossil fuels; water pollution from runoff of pesticides and fertilizers; very limited natural fresh water resources in much of the western part of the country require careful management; desertification Environment - international agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Hazardous Wastes Geography - note: world's third-largest country by size (after Russia and Canada) and by population (after China and India); Mt. McKinley is highest point in North America and Death Valley the lowest point on the continent People United States Population: 290,342,554 (July 2003 est.) Age structure: 0-14 years: 20.9% (male 31,098,473; female 29,675,712) 15-64 years: 66.7% (male 96,628,469; female 97,061,559) 65 years and over: 12.4% (male 14,888,185; female 20,990,156) (2003 est.) Median age: total: 35.8 years male: 34.5 years female: 37.1 years (2002) Population growth rate: 0.92% (2003 est.) Birth rate: 14.14 births/1,000 population (2003 est.) Death rate: 8.44 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.) Net migration rate: 3.52 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.) Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2003 est.) Infant mortality rate: total: 6.75 deaths/1,000 live births male: 7.46 deaths/1,000 live births female: 6.02 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) Life expectancy at birth: total population: 77.14 years female: 80.05 years (2003 est.) male: 74.37 years Total fertility rate: 2.07 children born/woman (2003 est.) HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.6% (2001 est.) HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 900,000 (2001 est.) HIV/AIDS - deaths: 15,000 (2001 est.) Nationality: noun: American(s) adjective: American Ethnic groups: white 77.1%, black 12.9%, Asian 4.2%, Amerindian and Alaska native 1.5%, native Hawaiian and other Pacific islander 0.3%, other 4% (2000) note: a separate listing for Hispanic is not included because the US Census Bureau considers Hispanic to mean a person of Latin American descent (including persons of Cuban, Mexican, or Puerto Rican origin) living in the US who may be of any race or ethnic group (white, black, Asian, etc.) Religions: Protestant 56%, Roman Catholic 28%, Jewish 2%, other 4%, none 10% (1989) Languages: English, Spanish (spoken by a sizable minority) Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write female: 97% (1979 est.) total population: 97% male: 97% People - note: data for the US are based on projections that do not take into consideration the results of the 2000 census Government United States Country name: conventional long form: United States of America conventional short form: United States abbreviation: US or USA Government type: Constitution-based federal republic; strong democratic tradition Capital: Washington, DC Administrative divisions: 50 states and 1 district*; Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia*, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming Dependent areas: American Samoa, Baker Island, Guam, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Islands, Navassa Island, Northern Mariana Islands, Palmyra Atoll, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, Wake Island note: from 18 July 1947 until 1 October 1994, the US administered the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, but recently entered into a new political relationship with all four political units: the Northern Mariana Islands is a commonwealth in political union with the US (effective 3 November 1986); Palau concluded a Compact of Free Association with the US (effective 1 October 1994); the Federated States of Micronesia signed a Compact of Free Association with the US (effective 3 November 1986); the Republic of the Marshall Islands signed a Compact of Free Association with the US (effective 21 October 1986) Independence: 4 July 1776 (from Great Britain) National holiday: Independence Day, 4 July (1776) Constitution: 17 September 1787, effective 4 March 1789 Legal system: based on English common law; judicial review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal Executive branch: chief of state: President George W. BUSH (since 20 January 2001) and Vice President Richard B. CHENEY (since 20 January 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government head of government: President George W. BUSH (since 20 January 2001) and Vice President Richard B. CHENEY (since 20 January 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president with Senate approval elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by a college of representatives who are elected directly from each state; president and vice president serve four-year terms; election last held 7 November 2000 (next to be held 2 November 2004) election results: George W. BUSH elected president; percent of popular vote - George W. BUSH (Republican Party) 48%, Albert A. GORE, Jr. (Democratic Party) 48%, Ralph NADER (Green Party) 3%, other 1% Legislative branch: bicameral Congress consists of the Senate (100 seats, one-third are renewed every two years; two members are elected from each state by popular vote to serve six-year terms) and the House of Representatives (435 seats; members are directly elected by popular vote to serve two-year terms) election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - Republican Party 51, Democratic Party 48, independent 1; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - Republican Party 226, Democratic Party 204, independent 1, undecided 4 elections: Senate - last held 5 November 2002 (next to be held NA November 2004); House of Representatives - last held 5 November 2002 (next to be held NA November 2004) Judicial branch: Supreme Court (its nine justices are appointed for life by the president with confirmation by the Senate); United States Courts of Appeal; United States District Courts; State and County Courts Political parties and leaders: Democratic Party [Terence McAULIFFE]; Green Party [leader NA]; Libertarian Party [Steve DASBACH]; Republican Party [Governor Marc RACICOT] Political pressure groups and leaders: NA International organization participation: AfDB, ANZUS, APEC, ARF (dialogue partner), AsDB, ASEAN (dialogue partner), Australia Group, BIS, CE (observer), CERN (observer), CP, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, ECLAC, ESCAP, FAO, G-5, G-7, G- 8, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MIPONUH, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS, OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SPC, UN, UN Security Council, UNCTAD, UNHCR, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMISET, UNMOVIC, UNOMIG, UNRWA, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO, ZC Flag description: thirteen equal horizontal stripes of red (top and bottom) alternating with white; there is a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing 50 small, white, five-pointed stars arranged in nine offset horizontal rows of six stars (top and bottom) alternating with rows of five stars; the 50 stars represent the 50 states, the 13 stripes represent the 13 original colonies; known as Old Glory; the design and colors have been the basis for a number of other flags, including Chile, Liberia, Malaysia, and Puerto Rico Economy United States Economy - overview: The US has the largest and most technologically powerful economy in the world, with a per capita GDP of $37,600. In this market-oriented economy, private individuals and business firms make most of the decisions, and the federal and state governments buy needed goods and services predominantly in the private marketplace. US business firms enjoy considerably greater flexibility than their counterparts in Western Europe and Japan in decisions to expand capital plant, lay off surplus workers, and develop new products. At the same time, they face higher barriers to entry in their rivals' home markets than the barriers to entry of foreign firms in US markets. US firms are at or near the forefront in technological advances, especially in computers and in medical, aerospace, and military equipment, although their advantage has narrowed since the end of World War II. The onrush of technology largely explains the gradual development of a "two-tier labor market" in which those at the bottom lack the education and the professional/technical skills of those at the top and, more and more, fail to get comparable pay raises, health insurance coverage, and other benefits. Since 1975, practically all the gains in household income have gone to the top 20% of households. The years 1994-2000 witnessed solid increases in real output, low inflation rates, and a drop in unemployment to below 5%. The year 2001 saw the end of boom psychology and performance, with output increasing only 0.3% and unemployment and business failures rising substantially. The response to the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001 showed the remarkable resilience of the economy. Moderate recovery took place in 2002, with the GDP growth rate rising to 2.45%. A major short-term problem in first half 2002 was a sharp decline in the stock market, fueled in part by the exposure of dubious accounting practices in some major corporations. The war in March/April 2003 between a US-led coalition and Iraq shifted resources to military industries and introduced uncertainties about investment and employment in other sectors of the economy. Long-term problems include inadequate investment in economic infrastructure, rapidly rising medical and pension costs of an aging population, sizable trade deficits, and stagnation of family income in the lower economic groups. GDP: purchasing power parity - $10.45 trillion (2002 est.) GDP - real growth rate: 2.4% (2002 est.) GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $36,300 (2002 est.) GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 2% industry: 18% services: 80% (2002 est.) Population below poverty line: 12.7% (2001 est.) Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.8% highest 10%: 30.5% (1997) Distribution of family income - Gini index: 40.8 (1997) Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.6% (2002) Labor force: 141.8 million (includes unemployed) (2001) Labor force - by occupation: managerial and professional 31%, technical, sales and administrative support 28.9%, services 13.6%, manufacturing, mining, transportation, and crafts 24.1%, farming, forestry, and fishing 2.4% note: figures exclude the unemployed (2001) Unemployment rate: 5.8% (2002) Budget: revenues: $1.946 trillion expenditures: $2.052 trillion, including capital expenditures of NA (2002 est.) Industries: leading industrial power in the world, highly diversified and technologically advanced; petroleum, steel, motor vehicles, aerospace, telecommunications, chemicals, electronics, food processing, consumer goods, lumber, mining Industrial production growth rate: -0.4% (2002 est.) Electricity - production: 3.719 trillion kWh (2001) Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 71.4% hydro: 5.6% other: 2.3% (2001) nuclear: 20.7% Electricity - consumption: 3.602 trillion kWh (2001) Electricity - exports: 18.17 billion kWh (2001) Electricity - imports: 38.48 billion kWh (2001) Oil - production: 8.054 million bbl/day (2001 est.) Oil - consumption: 19.65 million bbl/day (2001 est.) Oil - exports: NA (2001) Oil - imports: NA (2001) Oil - proved reserves: 22.45 billion bbl (37257) Natural gas - production: 548.1 billion cu m (2001 est.) Natural gas - consumption: 640.9 billion cu m (2001 est.) Natural gas - exports: 11.16 billion cu m (2001 est.) Natural gas - imports: 114.1 billion cu m (2001 est.) Natural gas - proved reserves: 5.195 trillion cu m (37257) Agriculture - products: wheat, corn, other grains, fruits, vegetables, cotton; beef, pork, poultry, dairy products; forest products; fish Exports: $687 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.) Exports - commodities: capital goods, automobiles, industrial supplies and raw materials, consumer goods, agricultural products Exports - partners: Canada 23.2%, Mexico 14.1%, Japan 7.4%, UK 4.8% (2002) Imports: $1.165 trillion f.o.b. (2002 est.) Imports - commodities: crude oil and refined petroleum products, machinery, automobiles, consumer goods, industrial raw materials, food and beverages Imports - partners: Canada 17.8%, Mexico 11.3%, China 11.1%, Japan 10.4%, Germany 5.3% (2002) Debt - external: $862 billion (1995 est.) Economic aid - donor: ODA, $6.9 billion (1997) Currency: US dollar (USD) Currency code: USD Exchange rates: British pounds per US dollar - 0.6661 (2002), 0.6944 (2001), 0.6596 (2000), 0.6180 (1999), 0.6037 (1998), Canadian dollars per US dollar - 1.5693 (2002), 1.5488 (2001), 1.4851 (2000), 1.4857 (1999), 1.4835 (1998), Japanese yen per US dollar - 125.39 (2002), 121.53 (2001), 107.77 (2000), 113.91 (1999), 130.91 (1998), euros per US dollar - 1.0626 (2002), 1.1175 (2001), 1.08540 (2000), 0.93863 (1999) note: financial institutions in France, Italy, and Germany and eight other European countries started using the euro on 1 January 1999 with the euro replacing the local currency in consenting countries for all transactions in 2002 Fiscal year: 1 October - 30 September Communications United States Telephones - main lines in use: 194 million (1997) Telephones - mobile cellular: 69.209 million (1998) Telephone system: general assessment: a very large, technologically advanced, multipurpose communications system domestic: a large system of fiber-optic cable, microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, and domestic satellites carries every form of telephone traffic; a rapidly growing cellular system carries mobile telephone traffic throughout the country international: 24 ocean cable systems in use; satellite earth stations - 61 Intelsat (45 Atlantic Ocean and 16 Pacific Ocean), 5 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region), and 4 Inmarsat (Pacific and Atlantic Ocean regions) (2000) Radio broadcast stations: AM 4,762, FM 5,542, shortwave 18 (1998) Radios: 575 million (1997) Television broadcast stations: more than 1,500 (including nearly 1,000 stations affiliated with the five major networks - NBC, ABC, CBS, FOX, and PBS; in addition, there are about 9,000 cable TV systems) (1997) Televisions: 219 million (1997) Internet country code: .us Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 7,000 (2002 est.) Internet users: 165.75 million (2002) Transportation United States Railways: total: 194,731 km mainline routes standard gauge: 194,731 km 1.435-m gauge note: represents the aggregate length of roadway of all line-haul railroads including an estimate for class II and III railroads; excludes 135,185 km of yard tracks, sidings, and parallel lines (2000) Highways: total: 6,334,859 km paved: 3,737,567 km (including 89,426 km of expressways) unpaved: 2,597,292 km (2000) Waterways: 41,009 km note: navigable inland channels, exclusive of the Great Lakes Pipelines: petroleum products 244,620 km; natural gas 548,665 km (2003) Ports and harbors: Anchorage, Baltimore, Boston, Charleston, Chicago, Duluth, Hampton Roads, Honolulu, Houston, Jacksonville, Los Angeles, New Orleans, New York, Philadelphia, Port Canaveral, Portland (Oregon), Prudhoe Bay, San Francisco, Savannah, Seattle, Tampa, Toledo Merchant marine: total: 348 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 9,414,676 GRT/12,207,346 DWT ships by type: barge carrier 2, bulk 71, cargo 26, chemical tanker 13, combination bulk 2, combination ore/oil 1, container 79, freighter 15, heavy lift carrier 3, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 73, refrigerated cargo 3, roll on/roll off 46, short-sea passenger 2, specialized tanker 2, vehicle carrier 9 note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Australia 1, Canada 4, Denmark 15, France 1, Germany 1, Netherlands 3, Norway 7, Puerto Rico 4, Singapore 11, Sweden 1, United Kingdom 3; also, the US owns 549 additional ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 29,616,347 DWT that operate under the registries of Antigua and Barbuda, Australia, The Bahamas, Belize, Bermuda, Cambodia, Canada, Cayman Islands, Cyprus, Finland, Gibraltar, Hong Kong (China), Indonesia, Isle of Man, Italy, Liberia, Malta, Marshall Islands, Netherlands, Norway, Norway (NIS), Panama, Peru, Philippines, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Singapore, Tonga, UK, Vanuatu, and Wallis and Futuna (2002 est.) Airports: 14,801 (2002) Airports - with paved runways: total: 5,131 over 3,047 m: 185 2,438 to 3,047 m: 222 914 to 1,523 m: 2,390 under 914 m: 969 (2002) 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1,365 Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 9,670 under 914 m: 7,802 (2002) over 3,047 m: 1 2,438 to 3,047 m: 7 914 to 1,523 m: 1,702 1,524 to 2,437 m: 158 Heliports: 149 (2002) Military United States Military branches: Army, Navy and Marine Corps, Air Force, and Coast Guard (Coast Guard administered in peacetime by the Department of Homeland Security but in wartime reports to the Department of the Navy) Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age (2003 est.) Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 73,597,731 (2003 est.) Military manpower - fit for military service: NA Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 2,116,002 (2003 est.) Military expenditures - dollar figure: $276.7 billion (FY99 est.) Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 3.2% (FY99 est.) Military - note: note: 2002 estimates for military manpower are based on projections that do not take into consideration the results of the 2000 census Transnational Issues United States Disputes - international: prolonged drought in the Mexico border region has strained water-sharing arrangements; 1990 Maritime Boundary Agreement in the Bering Sea awaits Russian Duma ratification; maritime boundary disputes with Canada at Dixon Entrance, Beaufort Sea, Strait of Juan de Fuca, and around the disputed Machias Seal Island and North Rock; The Bahamas have not been able to agree on a maritime boundary; US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay is leased from Cuba and only mutual agreement or US abandonment of the area can terminate the lease; Haiti claims Navassa Island; US has made no territorial claim in Antarctica (but has reserved the right to do so) and does not recognize the claims of any other state; Marshall Islands claims Wake Island Illicit drugs: consumer of cocaine shipped from Colombia through Mexico and the Caribbean; consumer of heroin, marijuana, and increasingly methamphetamine from Mexico; consumer of high-quality Southeast Asian heroin; illicit producer of cannabis, marijuana, depressants, stimulants, hallucinogens, and methamphetamine; money-laundering center This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003
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