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Индия Республика Индия 1947- республика федеральная парламентская, территория 3.287.263 кв км, население 1.340.468.000 (2017), столица Нью-Дели UTC +5:30, премьер-министр МОДИ Нарендра (2014-) родился 1950-09-17, ISO-код IN, телефонный код +91, Интернет-домен .in India Republic of India 1947- republic federal parliament, territory 3.287.263 sq km, population 1.340.468.000 (2017), capital New Delhi UTC +5:30, prime minister MODI Narendra (2014-) born 1950-09-17, ISO code IN, phone code +91, Internet domain .in

СозданиеCreationУчредители, первое лицоFounders, supreme authorityПравительствоGovernmentПарламентParliamentОппозиция, обществнностьOpposition, public
Конституция, законы, инсигнииConstitution, laws, insigniaРейтингиRatingsЭкономика, ресурсыEconomics, resourcesСоциалкаSocialФинансы, бюджетFinances, budget
Архивы: Фото, Видео, АудиоArchives: Photo, Video, Audio
Столица, большие города, регионыCapital, big cities, regions
Демография, этносы, языки, конфессииDemography, ethnoses, languages, confessionsГеография, природа, экологияGeography, nature, ecology
Конфликты, выборы, реформыConflicts, elections, reformsТуризм, отдыхTourism, relaxation
Медиа, общественное мнениеMedia, social opinionСпорт, хобби, обычаиSport, hobby, customs
 India Background: The Indus Valley civilization, one of the oldest in the world, goes back at least 5,000 years. Aryan tribes from the northwest invaded about 1500 B.C.; their merger with the earlier inhabitants created the classical Indian culture. Arab incursions starting in the 8th century and Turkish in 12th were followed by European traders, beginning in the late 15th century. By the 19th century, Britain had assumed political control of virtually all Indian lands. Nonviolent resistance to British colonialism under Mohandas GANDHI and Jawaharlal NEHRU led to independence in 1947. The subcontinent was divided into the secular state of India and the smaller Muslim state of Pakistan. A third war between the two countries in 1971 resulted in East Pakistan becoming the separate nation of Bangladesh. Fundamental concerns in India include the ongoing dispute with Pakistan over Kashmir, massive overpopulation, environmental degradation, extensive poverty, and ethnic and religious strife, all this despite impressive gains in economic investment and output. Geography India Location: Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal, between Burma and Pakistan Geographic coordinates: 20 00 N, 77 00 E Map references: Asia Area: total: 3,287,590 sq km land: 2,973,190 sq km water: 314,400 sq km Area - comparative: slightly more than one-third the size of the US Land boundaries: total: 14,103 km border countries: Bangladesh 4,053 km, Bhutan 605 km, Burma 1,463 km, China 3,380 km, Nepal 1,690 km, Pakistan 2,912 km Coastline: 7,000 km Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 NM territorial sea: 12 NM continental shelf: 200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin exclusive economic zone: 200 NM Climate: varies from tropical monsoon in south to temperate in north Terrain: upland plain (Deccan Plateau) in south, flat to rolling plain along the Ganges, deserts in west, Himalayas in north Elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m highest point: Kanchenjunga 8,598 m Natural resources: coal (fourth-largest reserves in the world), iron ore, manganese, mica, bauxite, titanium ore, chromite, natural gas, diamonds, petroleum, limestone, arable land Land use: arable land: 54.35% permanent crops: 2.66% other: 42.99% (1998 est.) Irrigated land: 590,000 sq km (1998 est.) Natural hazards: droughts; flash floods, as well as widespread and destructive flooding from monsoonal rains; severe thunderstorms; earthquakes Environment - current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; overgrazing; desertification; air pollution from industrial effluents and vehicle emissions; water pollution from raw sewage and runoff of agricultural pesticides; tap water is not potable throughout the country; huge and growing population is overstraining natural resources Environment - international agreements: party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements Geography - note: dominates South Asian subcontinent; near important Indian Ocean trade routes People India Population: 1,049,700,118 (July 2003 est.) Age structure: 0-14 years: 32.2% (male 173,973,350; female 163,979,116) 15-64 years: 63% (male 342,620,712; female 319,259,867) 65 years and over: 4.8% (male 25,281,756; female 24,585,317) (2003 est.) Median age: total: 24.1 years male: 24.1 years female: 24.2 years (2002) Population growth rate: 1.47% (2003 est.) Birth rate: 23.28 births/1,000 population (2003 est.) Death rate: 8.49 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.) Net migration rate: -0.07 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.) Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.07 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 1.03 male(s)/female total population: 1.07 male(s)/female (2003 est.) Infant mortality rate: total: 59.59 deaths/1,000 live births female: 58.93 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 60.23 deaths/1,000 live births Life expectancy at birth: total population: 63.62 years male: 62.92 years female: 64.37 years (2003 est.) Total fertility rate: 2.91 children born/woman (2003 est.) HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.8% (2001 est.) HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 3.97 million (2001 est.) HIV/AIDS - deaths: 310,000 (2001 est.) Nationality: noun: Indian(s) adjective: Indian Ethnic groups: Indo-Aryan 72%, Dravidian 25%, Mongoloid and other 3% (2000) Religions: Hindu 81.3%, Muslim 12%, Christian 2.3%, Sikh 1.9%, other groups including Buddhist, Jain, Parsi 2.5% (2000) Languages: English enjoys associate status but is the most important language for national, political, and commercial communication; Hindi is the national language and primary tongue of 30% of the people; there are 14 other official languages: Bengali, Telugu, Marathi, Tamil, Urdu, Gujarati, Malayalam, Kannada, Oriya, Punjabi, Assamese, Kashmiri, Sindhi, and Sanskrit; Hindustani is a popular variant of Hindi/Urdu spoken widely throughout northern India but is not an official language Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 59.5% male: 70.2% female: 48.3% (2003 est.) Government India Country name: conventional long form: Republic of India conventional short form: India Government type: federal republic Capital: New Delhi Administrative divisions: 28 states and 7 union territories*; Andaman and Nicobar Islands*, Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chandigarh*, Chhattisgarh, Dadra and Nagar Haveli*, Daman and Diu*, Delhi*, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Lakshadweep*, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Orissa, Pondicherry*, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttaranchal, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal Independence: 15 August 1947 (from UK) National holiday: Republic Day, 26 January (1950) Constitution: 26 January 1950 Legal system: based on English common law; limited judicial review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal Executive branch: chief of state: President Abdul KALAM (since 26 July 2002); Vice President Bhairon Singh SHEKHAWAT (since 12 August 2002) elections: president elected by an electoral college consisting of elected members of both houses of Parliament and the legislatures of the states for a five-year term; election last held NA July 2002 (next to be held NA July 2007); vice president elected by both houses of Parliament for a five-year term; election last held 12 August 2002 (next to be held NA August 2007); prime minister elected by parliamentary members of the majority party following legislative elections; election last held NA October 1999 (next to be held NA October 2004) head of government: Prime Minister Atal Bihari VAJPAYEE (since 19 March 1998) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister election results: Abdul KALAM elected president; percent of electoral college vote - NA%; Bhairon Singh SHEKHAWAT elected vice president; percent of Parliament vote - 59.8%; Atal Bihari VAJPAYEE elected prime minister; percent of vote - NA% Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament or Sansad consists of the Council of States or Rajya Sabha (a body consisting of not more than 250 members, up to 12 of which are appointed by the president, the remainder are chosen by the elected members of the state and territorial assemblies; members serve six-year terms) and the People's Assembly or Lok Sabha (545 seats; 543 elected by popular vote, 2 appointed by the president; members serve five-year terms) elections: People's Assembly - last held 5 September through 3 October 1999 (next to be held NA 2004) election results: People's Assembly - percent of vote by party - BJP alliance 40.8%, Congress (I) alliance 33.8%, other 25.4%; seats by party - BJP alliance 304, Congress (I) alliance 134, other 107 Judicial branch: Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president and remain in office until they reach the age of 65) Political parties and leaders: All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam or AIADMK [C. Jayalalitha JAYARAM]; All India Forward Bloc or AIFB, [D. BISWAS (general secretary)]; Asom Gana Parishad [Brindaban GOSWAMI]; Bahujan Samaj Party or BSP [MAYAWATI]; Bharatiya Janata Party or BJP [Jana KRISNAMURTHY]; Biju Janata Dal or BJD [Naveen PATNAIK]; Communist Party of India or CPI [Ardhendu Bhushan BARDHAN]; Communist Party of India/Marxist-Leninist or CPI/ML [Dipankar BHATTACHARYA]; Congress (I) Party [Sonia GANDHI]; Dravida Munnetra Kazagham or DMK (a regional party in Tamil Nadu) [M. KARUNANIDHI]; Indian National League [Suliaman SAITH]; Janata Dal (Secular) [H. D. Deve GOWDA]; Janata Dal (United) or JDU [Sharad YADAV]; Kerala Congress (Mani faction) [K. M. MANI]; Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam or MDMK [VAIKO]; Muslim League [G. M. BANATWALA]; Nationalist Congress Party or NCP [Sharad PAWAR]; Rashtriya Janata Dal or RJD [Laloo Prasad YADAV]; Revolutionary Socialist Party or RSP [Abani ROY]; Samajwadi Party or SP [Mulayam Singh YADAV]; Shiromani Akali Dal [G. S. TOHRA]; Shiv Sena [Bal THACKERAY]; Tamil Maanila Congress [G. K. VASAN]; Telugu Desam Party or TDP [Chandrababu NAIDU]; Trinamool Congress [Mamata BANERJEE] Political pressure groups and leaders: numerous religious or militant/chauvinistic organizations, including Vishwa Hindu Parishad, Bajrang Dal, and Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh; various separatist groups seeking greater communal and/or regional autonomy, including the All Parties Hurriyat Conference International organization participation: AfDB, ARF (dialogue partner), AsDB, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIS, C, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G- 6, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA (observer), IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, MIPONUH, MONUC, NAM, OAS (observer), OPCW, PCA, SAARC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOVIC, UNU, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Lalit MANSINGH consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, New York, and San Francisco FAX: [1] (202) 483-3972 telephone: [1] (202) 939-7000 chancery: 2107 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008; note - Embassy located at 2536 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Robert D. BLACKWILL embassy: Shantipath, Chanakyapuri, New Delhi 110021 mailing address: use embassy street address telephone: [91] (11) 419-8000 FAX: [91] (11) 419-0017 consulate(s) general: Chennai (Madras), Kolkata (Calcutta), Mumbai (Bombay) Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of saffron (subdued orange) (top), white, and green with a blue chakra (24-spoked wheel) centered in the white band; similar to the flag of Niger, which has a small orange disk centered in the white band Economy India Economy - overview: India's economy encompasses traditional village farming, modern agriculture, handicrafts, a wide range of modern industries, and a multitude of support services. Overpopulation severely handicaps the economy and about a quarter of the population is too poor to be able to afford an adequate diet. Government controls have been reduced on imports and foreign investment, and privatization of domestic output has proceeded slowly. The economy has posted an excellent average growth rate of 6% since 1990, reducing poverty by about 10 percentage points. India has large numbers of well-educated people skilled in the English language; India is a major exporter of software services and software workers; the information technology sector leads the strong growth pattern. The World Bank and others worry about the continuing public-sector budget deficit, running at approximately 10% of GDP in 1997-2002. In 2003 the state-owned Indian Bank substantially reduced non-performing loans, attracted new customers, and turned a profit. Deep-rooted problems remain, notably conflicts among political and cultural groups. GDP: purchasing power parity - $2.664 trillion (2002 est.) GDP - real growth rate: 4.3% (2002 est.) GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,600 (2002 est.) GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 25% industry: 25% services: 50% (2002 est.) Population below poverty line: 25% (2002 est.) Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.5% highest 10%: 33.5% (1997) Distribution of family income - Gini index: 37.8 (1997) Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.4% (2002 est.) Labor force: 406 million (1999) Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 60%, services 23%, industry 17% (1999) Unemployment rate: 8.8% (2002) Budget: revenues: $48.3 billion expenditures: $78.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $14 (FY01/02 est.) Industries: textiles, chemicals, food processing, steel, transportation equipment, cement, mining, petroleum, machinery, software Industrial production growth rate: 6% (2002 est.) Electricity - production: 533.3 billion kWh (2001) Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 81.7% hydro: 14.5% other: 0.3% (2001) nuclear: 3.4% Electricity - consumption: 497.2 billion kWh (2001) Electricity - exports: 321 million kWh (2001) Electricity - imports: 1.54 billion kWh (2001) Oil - production: 732,400 bbl/day (2001 est.) Oil - consumption: 2.13 million bbl/day (2001 est.) Oil - exports: NA (2001) Oil - imports: NA (2001) Oil - proved reserves: 4.33 billion bbl (37257) Natural gas - production: 22.75 billion cu m (2001 est.) Natural gas - consumption: 22.75 billion cu m (2001 est.) Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2001 est.) Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2001 est.) Natural gas - proved reserves: 542.4 billion cu m (37257) Agriculture - products: rice, wheat, oilseed, cotton, jute, tea, sugarcane, potatoes; cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats, poultry; fish Exports: $44.5 billion f.o.b. (2001) Exports - commodities: textile goods, gems and jewelry, engineering goods, chemicals, leather manufactures Exports - partners: US 22.5%, UK 5.1%, UAE 5.1%, Hong Kong 4.5%, Germany 4.3%, China 4.1% (2002) Imports: $53.8 billion f.o.b. (2001) Imports - commodities: crude oil, machinery, gems, fertilizer, chemicals Imports - partners: US 7.1%, Belgium 6.7%, China 4.6%, Singapore 4.6%, UK 4.6% (2002) Debt - external: $100.6 billion (2001 est.) Economic aid - recipient: $2.9 billion (FY 98/99) Currency: Indian rupee (INR) Currency code: INR Exchange rates: Indian rupees per US dollar - 48.61 (2002), 47.19 (2001), 44.94 (2000), 43.06 (1999), 41.26 (1998) Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March Communications India Telephones - main lines in use: 27.7 million (October 2000) Telephones - mobile cellular: 2.93 million (November 2000) Telephone system: general assessment: mediocre service; local and long distance service provided throughout all regions of the country, with services primarily concentrated in the urban areas; major objective is to continue to expand and modernize long-distance network to keep pace with rapidly growing number of local subscriber lines; steady improvement is taking place with the recent admission of private and private-public investors, but, with telephone density at about two for each 100 persons and a waiting list of over 2 million, demand for main line telephone service will not be satisfied for a very long time domestic: local service is provided by microwave radio relay and coaxial cable, with open wire and obsolete electromechanical and manual switchboard systems still in use in rural areas; starting in the 1980s, a substantial amount of digital switch gear has been introduced for local and long-distance service; long-distance traffic is carried mostly by coaxial cable and low-capacity microwave radio relay; since 1985 significant trunk capacity has been added in the form of fiber-optic cable and a domestic satellite system with 254 earth stations; mobile cellular service is provided in four metropolitan cities international: satellite earth stations - 8 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and 1 Inmarsat (Indian Ocean region); nine gateway exchanges operating from Mumbai (Bombay), New Delhi, Kolkata (Calcutta), Chennai (Madras), Jalandhar, Kanpur, Gaidhinagar, Hyderabad, and Ernakulam; 4 submarine cables - LOCOM linking Chennai (Madras) to Penang; Indo-UAE-Gulf cable linking Mumbai (Bombay) to Al Fujayrah, UAE; India-SEA-ME-WE-3, SEA-ME-WE-2 with landing sites at Cochin and Mumbai (Bombay); Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG) with landing site at Mumbai (Bombay) (2000) Radio broadcast stations: AM 153, FM 91, shortwave 68 (1998) Radios: 116 million (1997) Television broadcast stations: 562 (of which 82 stations have 1 kW or greater power and 480 stations have less than 1 kW of power) (1997) Televisions: 63 million (1997) Internet country code: .in Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 43 (2000) Internet users: 7 million (2002) Transportation India Railways: total: 63,518 km (15,009 km electrified) broad gauge: 45,142 km 1.676-m gauge narrow gauge: 15,013 km 1.000-m gauge; 3,363 km 0.762-m gauge and 0.610-m gauge (2002) Highways: total: 3,319,644 km paved: 1,517,077 km unpaved: 1,802,567 km (1999 est.) Waterways: 16,180 km note: 3,631 km navigable by large vessels Pipelines: gas 5,798 km; liquid petroleum gas 1,195 km; oil 5,613 km; refined products 5,567 km (2003) Ports and harbors: Chennai (Madras), Cochin, Jawaharal Nehru, Kandla, Kolkata (Calcutta), Mumbai (Bombay), Vishakhapatnam Merchant marine: total: 305 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 5,753,279 GRT/9,621,911 DWT ships by type: bulk 100, cargo 82, chemical tanker 15, combination bulk 2, combination ore/oil 2, container 10, liquefied gas 10, passenger/cargo 5, petroleum tanker 75, roll on/roll off 1, short-sea passenger 2, specialized tanker 1 note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: China 1, UAE 10, UK 1 (2002 est.) Airports: 334 (2002) Airports - with paved runways: total: 232 over 3,047 m: 14 2,438 to 3,047 m: 47 914 to 1,523 m: 73 under 914 m: 20 (2002) 1,524 to 2,437 m: 78 Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 102 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 1,524 to 2,437 m: 9 under 914 m: 48 (2002) 914 to 1,523 m: 42 Heliports: 19 (2002) Military India Military branches: Army, Navy (including naval air arm), Air Force, Strategic Nuclear Command (SNC), Coast Guard, various security or paramilitary forces (including Border Security Force, Assam Rifles, Rashtriya Rifles, National Security Guards, Indo-Tibetan Border Police, Special Frontier Force, Ladakh Scouts, Central Reserve Police Force, Central Industrial Security Force, Railway Protection Force, Defense Security Corps, and Indian Reserve Battalions) Military manpower - military age: 17 years of age (2003 est.) Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 288,251,975 (2003 est.) Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 169 million (2003 est.) Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 11,035,174 (2003 est.) Military expenditures - dollar figure: $11.52 billion (FY02) Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.3% (FY02) Transnational Issues India Disputes - international: much of the rugged, militarized boundary with China is in dispute, but the two sides have participated in more than 13 rounds of joint working group sessions on this issue; India objects to Pakistan ceding lands to China in 1965 boundary agreement that India believes are part of disputed Kashmir; with Pakistan, armed stand-off over the status and sovereignty of Kashmir continues; disputes with Pakistan over Indus River water sharing and the terminus of the Rann of Kutch, which prevents maritime boundary delimitation; Joint Border Committee with Nepal continues to work on resolution of disputed boundary sections; dispute with Bangladesh over New Moore/South Talpatty Island in the Bay of Bengal prevents maritime boundary delimitation Illicit drugs: world's largest producer of licit opium for the pharmaceutical trade, but an undetermined quantity of opium is diverted to illicit international drug markets; transit point for illicit narcotics produced in neighboring countries; illicit producer of methaqualone; vulnerable to narcotics money laundering through the hawala system This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003
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